Sneezing and coughing up blood. Attacking of nervous system causing great pain. Dead…in just days.
The human papillomavirus HPV vaccination program for young girls aged 11—26 years was introduced in Switzerland in Undergraduate women aged between 18—31 years, attending the Medical School and University of Applied Sciences in Geneva, were invited to participate in the study.
Included women were asked to perform vaginal self-sampling for HPV testing using a dry cotton swab. About HPV prevalence, 7. Prevalence of HPV 6 and 11 was 8. We observed no cross-protection for the other HPV genotypes of a low- and high-risk strain.
Continued assessment of HPV vaccine effectiveness in real population is needed. HPV; self-sampling; vaccination 1. Introduction Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death among women worldwide [ 1 ]. The development of cervical precancerous and cancerous lesions is a direct consequence of genital human papillomavirus HPV infection, which has been identified as the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world [ 2 ].
The introduction of HPV vaccinations represents a primary preventive measure, which, if given to young girls prior to the onset of sexual activity, can potentially alleviate the burden of the HPV infection [ 3 ]. Recent studies have predicted that cervical cancer rates will be drastically reduced in about 10—15 years, thanks to the impact of the HPV vaccination and HPV-based screening [ 4 ].
In Australia, monitoring surveillance demonstrated a very low prevalence of vaccine-related HPV genotypes after eight years post-initiation of a national HPV vaccination program [ 7 ].
About women in Switzerland are diagnosed with cervical cancer annually, with a risk of 2 per of dying from this disease. The HPV vaccination program for young girls aged 11—26 years was launched in Switzerland in as a part of cervical cancer prevention, with the aim to prevent cervical cancer and other HPV-related disease.
The quadrivalent vaccine targeting HPV16, 18, 6, and 11 is currently administered to girls aged 11—14 years, both in schools and in healthcare centers. The differences in cantonal coverage rates can be explained by the fact that each Swiss canton organizes the vaccination campaigns and the relative program on its own, thus explaining the disparities and the lack of national coordination [ 8 ].
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of high- and low-risk HPV in a population of undergraduate students using self-sampling for HPV testing.
Study Population and Setting This study took place in the city of Geneva, which is situated in the canton of Geneva, Switzerland, between January and October The enrolled participants were undergraduate nurse and midwife students in their first, second, or third year of studies, as well as undergraduate students attending their first through fifth year of Medical School at the University of Geneva years 1 to 6.
All women aged 18—31 years were included; exclusion criteria were history of total hysterectomy or having undergone cervical treatment in the past 12 months. The HPV self-collection kit was directly distributed to women who expressed an interest to participate in the study at the end of class.
The kit included a dry Dacron swab; a collection tube; instructions with explanatory pictures for self-sampling; a flyer explanation about HPV infection, cervical cancer screening, and cervical cancer; an informed consent form; and a questionnaire on socio-demographics.
Self-sampling was performed at home, and the kit, including both the swab and filled-out questionnaire, was collected by the study investigators two to three days later.
Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease affecting humans and non-human primates in tropical areas of Africa and South America. While eradication is not feasible due to the wildlife reservoir, large scale vaccination activities in Africa during the s to s reduced yellow fever incidence for. The Economic Miracle after the World War II was a rapid economic growth and expansion in the Between the year and the GNP has grew about % but the unemployment remained low. This article looks at the history, uses, and side effects of antibiotics. Read now All about food poisoning Eating contaminated food can lead to diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
Additional information about HPV and the test results were delivered by a designated study investigator upon request. Sampling kits were provided free of charge. Self-Sampling Procedure and Sample Preparation Women were asked to gently insert the swab in the vagina, while being careful to avoid contact with the external genitalia, and to carefully turn it up to five times either clockwise or counter-clockwise.
Each swab was then placed into a tube containing 3 mL of ThinPrep and vortexed for 45 s. The samples were promptly sent to Buhlmann laboratories for analysis. Data recording and interpretation were automated.
Whenever the quantity of HPV genome was not high enough to be detected by the Anyplex II device after running up to 40 PCR cycles, the test result was considered invalid.
Therefore, we estimate that a sample size of women will be adequate for the analyses.The impact of smallpox on history and human affairs was profound. Deities to smallpox became a part of the cultures of India, China, and parts of Africa.
In Europe, at the end of the 18th century, an estimated , people died annually from smallpox, and survivors accounted for one-third of . 10 facts on immunization.
Updated March There is arguably no single preventive health intervention more cost-effective than immunization. Time and again, the international community has endorsed the value of vaccines and immunization to prevent and control a large number of infectious diseases and, increasingly, several chronic diseases that are caused by infectious agents.
The issue of vaccination is of primary importance due to its direct impact on the quality and duration of the life of every citizen; exposing anybody to unjustified risk of being infected by vaccine-preventable diseases is inhumane.
Abstract. Persistent fears about the safety and efficacy of vaccines, and whether immunization programs are still needed, have led a significant minority of parents to refuse vaccination.
Vaccine Impact covers essential news regarding vaccine safety, and the impact vaccines have on the lives of individuals and families. Recorded adverse reactions include severe disability, paralysis and even death. Throughout Manufactured Crisis, victims and their families tell their own, often heartrending, stories.
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the carnage left. Throughout the years vaccinations have saved millions of lives, and helped prevent many of diseases from spreading like they could have. One example of the great impact that vaccines can have is the elimination of polio in the United States.
Vaccination protect against meningitis, ear infections, measles, rubella.