This is the third post in a series on living together before marriage. The first post presented statistics which demonstrate a high correlation between living together before marriage and undesirable outcomes. The second post presented various Scriptures which prohibit living together before marriage. Many of the Bible verses in the second post assumed that couples who live together are also sexually involved.
Congenital Zika virus infection can cause microcephaly and severe brain abnormalities.
As more information about the associated clinical syndrome becomes available, the phenotype is expanding to include other, sometimes less severe features, such as brain abnormalities without congenital microcephaly. What is added by this report? Although infants with congenital Zika virus infection who have a normal head size have been described in large series, sufficient description of the features of congenital Zika syndrome in these infants has not been available.
This report of a series of 13 infants with laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection with normal head size at birth includes the findings from extensive imaging, neurologic, ophthalmologic, auditory, and orthopedic examinations.
Follow-up of these infants has shown that for most, head growth deceleration occurs to the point of microcephaly after birth and significant neurologic sequelae are evident.
What are the implications for public health practice? Additional information is needed to fully describe the spectrum of findings associated with congenital Zika virus infection; however, microcephaly might not be evident at birth but can develop after birth in infants with underlying brain abnormalities.
These findings underscore the importance of early neuroimaging for infants exposed to Zika virus prenatally. Congenital Zika virus infection can cause microcephaly and severe brain abnormalities 1.
Congenital Zika syndrome comprises a spectrum of clinical features 2 ; however, as is the case with most newly recognized teratogens, the earliest documented clinical presentation is expected to be the most severe.
Initial descriptions of the effects of in utero Zika virus infection centered prominently on the finding of congenital microcephaly 3. All infants had brain abnormalities on neuroimaging consistent with congenital Zika syndrome, including decreased brain volume, ventriculomegaly, subcortical calcifications, and cortical malformations.
The earliest evaluation occurred on the second day of life. Among all infants, head growth was documented to have decelerated as early as 5 months of age, and 11 infants had microcephaly.
These findings provide evidence that among infants with prenatal exposure to Zika virus, the absence of microcephaly at birth does not exclude congenital Zika virus infection or the presence of Zika-related brain and other abnormalities. These findings support the recommendation for comprehensive medical and developmental follow-up of infants exposed to Zika virus prenatally.
Early neuroimaging might identify brain abnormalities related to congenital Zika infection even among infants with a normal head circumference 4. Thirteen infants with laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection and normal head size less than or equal to 2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth during October —January are included in this report.
The infants were evaluated by multidisciplinary teams at two referral centers in Brazil: Eleven of the infants came to clinical attention because their birth head circumference was below the level established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health as requiring further evaluation for possible congenital Zika virus infection http: These 11 infants were referred for neurologic evaluation and neuroimaging.
The remaining two infants who had head circumferences in the normal range at birth were referred for neurologic evaluation at ages 5 and 7 months because of developmental concerns.
A standard form was used to collect demographic and clinical information, including whether the mothers recalled having had a rash during pregnancy. All information was obtained as part of the clinical protocol or as the result of clinical indication.
Informed consent was obtained for the collection, use, and publication of clinical photographs of the infants. Laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection was defined as negative laboratory test results for five infectious causes of congenital microcephaly toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, rubella, syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus and serologic evidence of Zika virus infection a positive Zika virus-specific immunoglobulin M IgM capture enzyme—linked immunosorbent assay MAC-ELISA result on infant cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] or serum.
Maternal testing for evidence of Zika virus infection was not available during the time of the 13 pregnancies.Child Develop Chps STUDY. PLAY. How rapidly does growth usually occur? During first months & years, rapid growth and refinement in axons, dendrites, and synapses occur, especially in the cortex Great but temporary increase in the number of dendrites that develop in an infant's brain during the first 2 years of life.
Victoria Maternity Doctors is a group of experienced female physicians who share maternity and hospital care at the Victoria General Hospital. First Year, Months During the first year of a child’s life, his brain will double in size.
Much of this growth occurs in a part of the brain called the cerebellum, . The influence of maternal nutrition and intrauterine environment are reflected primarily in the growth parameters at the time of birth and during the first month of life.
I’m just your average Joe from a small town in the northern California hills. I’ve spent over half my life growing marijuana but I'll be the first to admit that I’m still no expert.
One of the most obvious signs of a health Kombucha brew is the formation of a new SCOBY (Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast – often referred to as a “baby”).While SCOBY growth will vary with the seasons due to differences in temperature, air pressure and the like, the culture is hardy and is constantly reproducing as part of its survival strategy.