Buddhism Hinduism No "value judgement" is implied by this list.
Okakura argued that Easterners were innately concerned with the Ultimate and Universal, while Westerners cared only for Particulars — a very dubious claim given that Confucianism tends to be an anti-Idealist and pragmatic philosophy.
Whenever I see the alcove of a tastefully built Japanese room, I marvel at our comprehension of the secrets of shadows, our sensitive use of shadow and light. And even we as children would feel an inexpressible chill as we peered into the depths of an alcove to which the sunlight had never penetrated.
Where lies the key to this mystery? Ultimately it is the magic of shadows. Nor are shadows limited to the spatial world, for the pauses ma that are so important in traditional Japanese music are in a way temporal shadows. Why this love of darkness? In my opinion it is this: If light is scarce then light is scarce; we will immerse ourselves in the darkness and there discover its own particular beauty.
But the progressive Westerner is determined always to better his lot. From candle to oil lamp, oil lamp to gaslight, gaslight to electric light — his quest for a brighter light never ceases, he spares no pains to eradicate even the minutest shadow.
What are we, the readers, to make of all this? What the careful reader notices as satire e. This way of reading the work paints Tanizaki — who was not known for his resistance to the war — as a principled critic who defiantly mocks his age from behind the mask of his narrator.
Readers from this camp put great emphasis on distinguishing the narrator from the author himself and insist that Tanizaki believed very little, if any, of the points articulated by his narrator.
Instead, they argue, Tanizaki uses the narrator only as a prop to undermine the very rhetoric espoused in the essay. While certain sections are obviously intended to be humorous, the work seems to be hinting at something more than strict parody, and the way the work simultaneously demands multiple interpretations is a testament to its resilience.
For on the one hand, it is hard to say that Tanizaki is entirely insincere — a glance at his body of work shows that he later employs much of what he advocates in the essay. In the end, Tanizaki leaves his readers in a state of aporia — irresolvable paradox — which is perhaps the ultimate aim of art.
The best we can do at this point is to accept the work as a kind of half-parodic, half-sincere monologue that performs all of the discourses mentioned above without advocating explicitly or implicitly for any of them.In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
[Edit 3/ I no longer endorse all the statements in this document. I think many of the conclusions are still correct, but especially section 1 is weaker than it should be, and many reactionaries complain I am pigeonholing all of them as agreeing with Michael Anissimov, which they do .
Huineng (Hui-neng) (—) Huineng a seminal figure in Buddhist urbanagricultureinitiative.com is the famous “Sixth Patriarch” of the Chan or meditation tradition, which is better known in Japanese as "Zen").
1. Preliminaries. In the West, virtue ethics’ founding fathers are Plato and Aristotle, and in the East it can be traced back to Mencius and Confucius. Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics.
It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism). FREE COURSE THE WORLD, THE JEWS AND THE SCIENCE OF HUMAN SURVIVAL Anti-Semitism, division, separation, violent conflicts and a general breakdown of the institutions of human society.