Mussolini and fascist italy essay


Mussolini and fascist italy essay

Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access Mussolini and Fascism Essay Sample The rise of Benito Mussolini and his fascist ideology from conception to acquisition and consolidation of office, was not the product of any single factor, but did in fact have a variety of contributory circumstances and events which ultimately led to the creation of a fascist state.

Not only was Mussolini assisted in his political ambitions by incompetent opposition, but there were also a large number of pre-existing conditions that facilitated the growth of an extremist system. A key factor in his consolidation of power was the Acerbo Act ofwhich guaranteed the majority party in parliament two thirds of all seats, regardless of the degree of that majority.

The fascists easily gained a majority of votes in the following elections due to a general desire for strong leadership. Once Mussolini had gained a majority in parliament he took further steps to assure a permanency of that majority by; suppressing all opposition parties through murder, exile and changes to the constitution, through the abolishment of local government and the implementation of localised fascism, a supervised Mussolini and fascist italy essay system were-by children were indoctrinated into the fascist ideology, and the dissolution of workers unions in exchange for increased work benefits promised by the state.

The public perception of the government was that it was designed to prevent decisive leadership through its implementation of proportional representation; it was incapable of protecting the national economy in allowing massive unemployment and decreased value of the lira and therefore increased costs of livingthey felt frustrated that Italy had not been awarded the territories assured to her by the Allies, and they felt angry that the Italian government had given up territories that they had gained, such as Fiume.

Mussolini promised a strong and decisive government that would contrast against the weak and feeble governments of the day, and this decisiveness was a popular notion.

So a collaboration of disappointment at the gains made from the peace settlements and the perceived weakness of the governments role in assuring Italian benefit, and the perceived negligence of the government in maintaining the Italian economy to avoid the depression, led to a distinct atmosphere of disillusionment and frustration.

Although there were undoubtedly a copious abundance of factors that contributed to the rise of fascism, by far the most obviously facilitating of these was the unstable political infrastructure of post war Italy, the ineptitude of which can largely be attributed to a dysfunctional system of proportional representation.

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Mussolini and Fascism Essay Sample


George Orwell (essay date 1943)


This system of government induced an atmosphere of discord whereby no party was able to establish a decisive leadership, relying instead upon coalition to take power.

The divided political climate however prohibited the formation of any cohesive government, leaving instead a cumulation of squabbling parties that refused to cooperate with each other — the communists refused to cooperate with the socialists, and the socialists refused to cooperate with the nationalists the frustration of which eventually led to the resignation of Giolitti — nationalist Prime Minister from June to July The net effect was that anti-fascist forces within the government were sufficiently inept in their ability to form a stable government by collaboration — and thereby in their opposition of fascism — that in May Giolitti held elections so that the fascists could gain some seats in parliament in order to support his government.

It was the dysfunctional and inept nature of the government that led to a growing contempt for the parliamentary system, and a desire for strong leadership — Mussolini promised precisely this, and through various means expressed his own contempt for the system, and was able to attract widespread support.

Upon the formation of the Italian Communist Party, many Italians particularly property owners felt somewhat objectionably convinced that some left-wing revolution was taking place — here Mussolini stood to gain more popular support with his strong anti-communist stance.

Not only did this appeal to the Papacy, but also struck a chord with the Italian people, who were still frustrated and fearful of a communist uprising. It was partly the frustration and disillusionment of the Italian people that led to a wave of strikes during andfrom which Mussolini benefited in two ways: Indeed, during the attempted general strike of instigated by the socialists, Mussolini demanded that if the government hesitated to suppress the strike, that he would do so himself with his black-shirts.

For this bold, audacious feat Mussolini was rewarded greatly — far from a battle between the fascists and the regular army and police in which the black-shirts would have surely been dispersed, Mussolini was invited to Rome by King Victor Emmanuel III, to form a new government.

Much historical debate has taken place over the kings motives for allowing this fascist takeover, as the uprising could have easily been defeated by the army or police, but despite this, Victor Emmanuel refused to declare a state of emergency to quell the insurrection.

It has been suggested that a number of influences led to his decision to allow a fascist government, first and foremost was a lack of confidence in Prime Minister Luigi Facta.

Aside from this lack of confidence, Emmanuel was also concerned at the possibility of insubordination from fascist sympathisers within the army, and in this same vein of concern he was also worried about the possibility of an abdication forced by his generals in favour of his cousin, the Duke of Aosta, to be king.

Emmanuel may also have had concerns about the possibility of a long and drawn out civil war in the event of a failed attempt to trounce fascism.

Regardless of his reasoning, the effect of his not declaring a state of emergency was to empower Mussolini, and place him in office.

Once Mussolini had managed to seize some power, he took steps to increase the magnitude of those powers, and to gain a monopoly over the parliamentary system. It is important to note that directly proceeding the march on Rome, Mussolini was still only the leader of the majority coalition in parliament, of which the fascists only had four of the twelve seats of cabinet, and so his powers where somewhat limited — however, the king had granted him special powers to last until the end of in order to affect some change.

This was the Acerbo Act November and guaranteed the majority party in parliament a full two thirds of all seats, regardless of the extent of that majority. Once the Acerbo Act was in place Mussolini took some major steps in assuring the legality of his totalitarian regime, including the suppression of all other political parties through murder, exile and changes to the constitution.

As the fascist stranglehold on Italy increased, so did the number of amendments to the constitution; in it was decided that the Prime Minister would only be responsible to the king, in an amendment was made such that the Prime Minister could rule by decree — thus surpassing the legal requirement of discussion in parliament the important matters came to be decided upon by the Fascist Grand Council, which was dictated by Mussolini — by then Il Duce.

Furthermore, local government was all but abolished — elected town councils and mayors disbanded, and instead towns were run by Rome appointed officials, but the real power of local government lay in the hands of local fascist party bosses — the ras.Benito Mussolini The Leader of a Facist Italy Essay example Benito Mussolini (“II Duce”) was the leader of a fascist Italy, coming into power during and up till his defeat in the Italian parliament during Propaganda of Fascist Italy was the material put forth by Italian Fascism to justify its authority and programs had that portion censored out before appearing in Italian papers.

The annexation of Albania was presented as a Mussolini instructed the heads of fascist women's organizations to go home and tell the women that. Benito Mussolini’s doctrine of Fascism influenced his economic and political decisions concerning Italy in various ways.

Mussolini was born on July 29, in Predappio, Italy. His full name was Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini. Although the Fascist state in Italy founded by Benito Mussolini has totalitarian qualities, it is not necessarily a totalitarian government.

The government in which Mussolini helped established was relatively dissimilar to the totalitarian model.

Mussolini and fascist italy essay

Where the difference lies is within the premise. Mussolini restored Fiume to Italy, he forced Greece to pay 50,, lire compensation to Italy for the death of four Italians. In this he went against the league of nations. He signed the Locarno pact settling the boarders of Europe, he established a protectorate over Albania in Why Did Italy Change from a Fascist Government to a New Government Essay - Italian Fascism became an extremely important phenomenon under the reign of Benito Mussolini .

Mussolini and Fascism | Essay Example