Other issues Illicit drugs: It attracts criminal organizations because the potential profits are significantly more than from other criminal commodities: As the report notes p.
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Members of IDARS are research scientists and clinicians from around the world, with scheduled meetings across the globe. IDARS is developing a vibrant and exciting international mechanism not only for scientific interactions in the domain of addiction between countries but also ultimately as a resource for informing public policy across nations.
Nonetheless, a lot more research needs to be done to better understand the neurobiological basis of drug addiction — A challenge for IDARS scientists.
Addiction to drugs and alcohol is increasingly becoming a worldwide trend in lifestyle that is prevalent in rich and poor countries alike.
Addiction to alcohol, drugs and cigarette smoking is now regarded as a major public health problem. Other forms of addiction including computer games, gambling, sex and food also have severe consequences on the health of the individual and to society.
The commonly abused drugs have profound action in the nervous system, particularly in the brain. Some of these substances such as opium, marijuana, cocaine, nicotine, caffeine, mescaline, and psilocybin are obtained from natural sources while others are synthetic or designer drugs.
Furthermore some of these substances like alcohol and nicotine are legal while some others that are legally available by prescription have addictive potential in vulnerable individuals.
A number of addictive substances are illegal in most countries and this fuel the illegal drug trafficking and business that are often associated with criminal activities. The initiation of the use of these substances induces euphoria, reward and a state of well-being that can lead to physical and psychological dependences.
Withdrawal syndrome occurs when the individual attempts to stop the use of addictive substances and this leads to the cycle of dependency. The mechanism s associated with the cycle of addiction include neuronal adaptation with tolerance or sensitization involved in the action of addictive substances.
A number of factors have also been associated with addiction, including the availability, cost, method of administration, environmental factors such as behaviors acceptable in a community, peer influences and genetic and epigenetic factors.
Over the years a number of therapeutic approaches for drug and alcohol addiction have been utilized. However, relapse the resumption of drug taking following a period of drug abstinence, is considered the main hurdle in treating drug addiction.
Unfortunately pharmacological treatment of drug and alcohol dependency has largely been disappointing and new therapeutic targets and hypotheses are needed. Drug addiction is also influenced by the interaction of genes, epigenetics and the environment.
Twin studies consistently show that there is a heritable component to drug abuse and addiction [ 2 ].
Now using modern genomic techniques, we are able to examine genetic variants, or single nucleotide polymorphisms that contribute to addiction vulnerability.
So a lot more research needs to be done to better understand the neurobiological basis of drug addiction and hence a continuous challenge for IDARS scientists.
IDARS is therefore engaged in a vibrant and exciting international mechanism, not only for scientific interactions among scientists in the domain of addiction research between countries but also as a resource for informing public policy across nations.
Therefore, these are high times for marijuana research with new findings on the biological effects of cannabinoids and as new potential applications in neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders [ 3 ]. The new advances and understanding indicate that the cellular, molecular and behavioral responses to marijuana are encoded in our genes [ 3 ].
The discovery that specific genes codes for cannabinoid receptors CBRs that are activated by marijuana use, and that the human body makes its own marijuana-like substances - endocannabinoids [ 4 ], that also activates CBRs have provided surprising new knowledge about cannabinoid genomic and proteomic profiles.
These remarkable advances in understanding the biological actions of marijuana, cannabinoids and endocannabinoids, is unraveling the genetic basis of marijuana use and the implication in human health and disease. A number of variations in cannabinoid receptor genes have been associated with human disorders including drug dependency [ 4 ], osteoporosis [ 5 ], ADHD and PTSD, [ 67 ], obesity [ 89 ], and depression [ 1011 ].
Thus, because of the ubiquitous distribution and role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of a variety of normal human physiology, drugs that are targeted to different aspects of this system are already benefiting cancer subjects and those with AIDs and metabolic syndromes [ 8 ].
In the coming era of personalized medicine, genetic variants and haplotypes in CNR1 and CNR2 genes associated with obesity or addiction phenotypes may help identify specific targets in conditions of endocannabinoid dysfunction.Success in the global fight against trafficking in drugs and humans, as well as the associated problems of transnational organized crime and money-laundering, required interlocking national, regional and international strategies rooted in global cooperation, the Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural) was told today, as it wrapped up its.
Urgent need to address drug abuse and its illicit trafficking. Drug abuse and illicit trafficking of controlled substances is a growing issue in Bhutan and it needs to be addressed before it gets late, health minister Tandin Wangchuk said. Drugs and Crime as a Threat to Development On the occasion of the UN International Day against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking.
26 June – New York Background. In the past decade, there has been significant growth in the illicit trafficking of drugs, people, firearms, and natural resources. Reaffirms the importance of achieving the objectives of the United Nations Decade against Drug Abuse, , under the theme "A global response to a global challenge", by Member States, the United Nations International Drug Control Programme and the United Nations system; Prior to addressing Mexico’s security situation, it is important to have a clear picture of the illicit drug-trafficking industry within Mexico as it relates to the United States.
No other country in the world has a greater impact on the drug situation in the United States than does Mexico. Vulnerable people are lured and trapped via myriad means including economic abuse, psychological coercion, threats against family, drug addiction, physical abuse, and sexual abuse .
Vulnerability to trafficking exists on societal, community, and individual levels, and might be a result of society’s demand for cheap goods, disruption of a.