Prehistoric literacy[ edit ] Origins of literacy[ edit ] Literacy is emerged with the development of numeracy and computational devices as early as 8, BCE. Script developed independently at least five times in human history MesopotamiaEgyptthe Indus civilizationlowland Mesoamericaand China.
They are normative insofar as they provide semantics for the UBL document schemas, but they should not be construed as limiting the application of those schemas. The following diagram illustrates the business context use case covered by UBL 2.
It is expected that implementers will develop their own customized document types and components and that more UBL document types will be added as the library evolves. The Item may be further distinguished by the specification of Measurement s or Physical Attribute s.
This enables specification of the following kinds of item: Item Requiring Description This is an item that is not identified by an unambiguous machine-processable identifier and requires additional descriptive information to precisely identify it.
Item Requiring Measurements This is an item for which it is necessary to specify one or more measurements as part of the descriptive specification of the item.
This form of identification may also be needed for product tracing e. In data modeling terms, an Item Instance is an extension of an Item. They are not repeated back to the Seller during Ordering; only the active price is specified. In some cases, the Buyer may not know the Item Price, in which case it is not specified.
This makes a detailed response from the Seller necessary; see Section 2. The Buyer may not be aware of the nature of the Item.
Indication of the Hazardous nature of the Item, and any relevant information, would be indicated in the Despatch Advice and Transportation documents. Dependent on the business process, a Party may play various roles in the document exchange.
For a list of UBL parties and their roles, see Section 2. Each should be a separate occurrence of the component, using the language attribute to define its presentation.
However, multiple occurrences of the same textual components should not be in the same language. Instead, it provides structures to support the information on which taxes are based. These aim to be generic and not based on any specific tax regime.
Often in UBL these data structures include an element named Item that describes more fully the item of sale being ordered, invoiced, shipped, etc.
Item in the line context always refers to the generic item of sale, not a unique, trackable, individual instance of such an item. In the case of line structures such as InvoiceLine and TenderLine, the relationship between the line and the Item it contains is unproblematic, but a person unfamiliar with traditional usage may easily be confused by the line element called LineItem.
Thus, despite the name, a LineItem is not an Item but rather a complex data structure that contains an Item along with quantity, price, and so on. For IT specialists unfamiliar with the way these terms are used in international trade, the structural relationships between the two can be puzzling.
For example, a close look at the data model shows that shipments can comprise multiple consignments and consignments can comprise multiple shipments.
This is not a design flaw but rather a reflection of the possible real-world relationships between the two concepts. Shipment and consignment actually refer to two different ways of looking at the same possibly very complex situation. From the physical or logistical point of view, a consignment is the transportation of an identifiable collection of goods items from one party the consignor to another the consignee via one or more modes of transport.
From the contractual or logical point of view, a shipment is the contractual arrangement whereby an identifiable collection of goods items is to be transported from one party the shipper to another party the recipient. In UBL, the party originating the shipment is usually a supplier, and the party receiving the shipment is usually a buyer.
In this case, the supplier of the contracted shipment is the consignor of the physical goods, and the buyer is the consignee. The shipper may use multiple carriers, or the shipment may be so large that it must be transported in multiple vessels, becoming in effect multiple consignments. It is therefore often necessary for the UBL description of a shipment to contain descriptions of the consignments into which the goods have been divided.
Split Fulfilment So far, the shipper here a supplier remains the only consignor and the recipient here the buyer the only consignee. Intermediary Fulfilment Another layer of complexity is introduced when pieces of different, possibly unrelated shipments are consolidated into a single consignment to make the physical process more efficient to share space in the same shipping container, for example, which optimizes transport by ensuring that the container is fully loaded and also provides a more competitive tariff.
This requires the UBL description of the consignment to contain descriptions of the shipments participating in the consolidation. Note that the transaction between the two freight forwarders is itself a shipment a consolidated shipmentand its data structure must be able to describe the two shipments it is covering Supplier A to Buyer A and Supplier B to Buyer B so that the receiving forwarder knows how to deconsolidate the consignment.
There is no semantic difference between these terms as used in UBL; in the context of freight management, they mean exactly the same thing: For example, the UBL Invoice and Remittance Advice can be used together with financial messages to ensure end-to-end transport of reconciliation identifiers invoicing party references.
In particular, UBL provides a solution for advanced external remittance, where the UBL Remittance Advice is used to transmit the details of complex remittance information associated with the payment initiation process see ISO guides for details.This section introduces the Construction Standards and Compliance Processes for Small Vessels.
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