Tsardom of Russia[ edit ] Main article: Tsardom of Russia Russia experienced territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of Cossacks. Cossacks were warriors organized into military communities, resembling pirates and pioneers of the New World.
This area was settled by a population of free people practicing various trades and crafts.
Cossacks became the backbone of the early Russian Army. Inthe peasants of Ukraine joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks in rebellion against Poland-Lithuania during the Khmelnytsky Uprisingbecause of the social and religious oppression they suffered under Polish rule.
Finally, Ukraine was split along the river Dnieperleaving the western part or Right-bank Ukraine under Polish rule and eastern part Left-bank Ukraine and Kiev under Russian. In the east, the rapid Russian exploration and colonisation of the huge territories of Siberia was led mostly by Cossacks hunting for valuable furs and ivory.
Russian explorers pushed eastward primarily along the Siberian river routesand by the midth century there were Russian settlements in the Eastern Siberia, on the Chukchi Peninsulaalong the Amur Riverand on the Pacific coast.
Reason and Enlightenment[ edit ] Further information: The Age of Reason in the Western world is generally regarded as being the start of modern philosophy and a departure from the medieval approach, especially Scholasticism.
Early 17th-century philosophy is often called the Age of Rationalism and is considered to succeed Renaissance philosophy and precede the Age of Enlightenment, but some consider it as the earliest part of the Enlightenment era in philosophy, extending that era to two centuries.
The 18th century saw the beginning of secularization in Europe, rising to notability in the wake of the French Revolution. The Age of Enlightenment is a time in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the 18th century in which reason was advocated as the primary source and legitimacy for authority.
Enlightenment gained momentum more or less simultaneously in many parts of Europe and America. Developing during the Enlightenment era, Renaissance humanism as an intellectual movement spread across Europe.
The basic training of the humanist was to speak well and write typically, in the form of a letter. The term umanista comes from the latter part of the 15th century. The people were associated with the studia humanitatisa novel curriculum that was competing with the quadrivium and scholastic logic.
They self-consciously imitated classical Latin and deprecated the use of medieval Latin. By analogy with the perceived decline of Latin, they applied the principle of ad fontesor back to the sources, across broad areas of learning.
The opposing two sides were, the Ancients Anciens who constrain choice of subjects to those drawn from the literature of Antiquity and the Moderns Moderneswho supported the merits of the authors of the century of Louis XIV.
Fontenelle quickly followed with his Digression sur les anciens et les modernesin which he took the Modern side, pressing the argument that modern scholarship allowed modern man to surpass the ancients in knowledge.
Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution was a period when European ideas in classical physicsastronomybiologyhuman anatomychemistryand other classical sciences were rejected and led to doctrines supplanting those that had prevailed from Ancient Greece to the Middle Ages which would lead to a transition to modern science.
This period saw a fundamental transformation in scientific ideas across physicsastronomyand biologyin institutions supporting scientific investigationand in the more widely held picture of the universe.
Individuals started to question all manners of things and it was this questioning that led to the Scientific Revolution, which in turn formed the foundations of contemporary sciences and the establishment of several modern scientific fields.
The French Revolution inspired a wave of revolutions across Europe. Liberalism and Nationalism were popular ideas that challenged Absolute Monarchies in the 19th century.
French Revolution Toward the middle and latter stages of the Age of Revolution, the French political and social revolutions and radical change saw the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy transform, changing to forms based on Enlightenment principles of citizenship and inalienable rights.
The first revolution led to government by the National Assemblythe second by the Legislative Assemblyand the third by the Directory.
The changes were accompanied by violent turmoil which included the trial and execution of the king, vast bloodshed and repression during the Reign of Terror, and warfare involving every other major European power.
Subsequent events that can be traced to the Revolution include the Napoleonic Wars, two separate restorations of the monarchy, and two additional revolutions as modern France took shape. In the following century, France would be governed at one point or another as a republic, constitutional monarchy, and two different empires.
National and Legislative Assembly[ edit ] Main articles: It provided the focus of political debate and revolutionary law-making between the periods of the National Constituent Assembly and of the National Convention.American Revolution CCOT History American Revolution CONTINUITIES CONCLUSION Paragraph BEGINNING The American Revolution was a political upheaval during the last half of the 18th century in which thirteen colonies in North America joined together to break from the British Empire, combining to become the United States of America.
The Great Awakening And Enlightenment In Colonial America During the late seventeenth and early eighteen centuries, colonial America saw major changes. The Great Awakening And Enlightenment In Colonial America In the 18th century colonial America, the society was diverse and complex.
In the three main geographic areas, . During and after the imperial struggles of the midth century, new pressures began to unite the British colonies against perceived and real constraints on their economic activities and political rights, sparking a colonial independence movement and war with Britain.
By: Destiney Wilson Life in Colonial America: 17th Century to 18th Century 17th Century Life During the 17th century many English men along with their families came to America, hoping to increase in wealth and broaden their world affairs.
The first colony was founded at Jamestown, Virginia in The studies included here trace important themes in the development of the British American economy from earliest colonial settlement to the end of the 18th century.
Each offers a particular argument about the causes and . Explain how religion impacted the development of European regions of North America prior to () Evaluate the impact () Evaluate the extent to which religious makeup and the concept of religious toleration within the British North American colonies maintained continuity as Explain the continuities and changes in the roles.