Litwack is Alexander F. Morrison Professor of American History at the University of California, Berkeley, where he has spent almost his entire career, earning a B.
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: Reviews in American History Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow. Notes, bibliography, and index.
Inthe student newspaper at Fisk, a black university in Nashville, predicted a major shift in race relations in the post-Reconstruction South. To its thinking, a new generation of Negroes had emerged, less patient and fearful than before.
This, in turn, had bred a new generation of whites, "even more hostile and bitter than the older ones.
This prediction proved accurate--and the consequences severe. The decades of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries witnessed a dramatic rise in racial violence and repression throughout the South. Trouble in Mind continues the narrative begun in Leon Litwack's previous book, Been in the Storm So Long, which followed the lives of black Southerners during the years of Civil War and Reconstruction.
The earlier book employed a mountain of evidence to capture the determination of former slaves seeking to exercise their liberty in meaningful ways.
The new book tells a far bleaker story. Some scholars may be disappointed. In place of statistics--there is not a single chart or graph in this page book--one finds folktales, church hymns, blues songs, prison records, oral histories, scrapbooks, private diaries, newspaper accounts, and assorted public records.
There are no disputes with fellow historians, no grand theories about the hardening of segregation, the impact of industrialization, the promise--and failure--of reform movements such as populism.
What Litwack has produced is a riveting, "bottoms up" account of people who worked and struggled in relative obscurity. A graceful writer with an eye for the perfect quote, the telling anecdote, he purposely steps aside to allow his subjects, wherever possible, to speak for themselves.
The result is an elegant panorama of black southern life, adding fresh detail and perspective to a depressingly familiar story. Owing a debt to Joel Williamson, who brilliantly laid the groundwork in The Crucible of RaceLitwack views the late-nineteenth-century South as a racial battleground, pitting younger, more assertive African-Americans, born in freedom, against a white community determined to enforce black deference and subordination at every turn.
It was, of course, a wildly uneven fight. Southern whites made the laws, owned the land, ran the schools, controlled the courts, wielded the power. It is true, as Litwack demonstrates, that whites differed widely in their perceptions regarding the "bad" behavior of young southern blacks. Some believed that emancipation had caused an inferior race to revert to its "primitive" African roots by placing it beyond the "civilizing" orbit of white control.
Others worried that freedom had provided blacks with an inflated sense of their "modest" potential. Either possibility was unsettling to southern whites, who sensed that the "faithful" slaves of yesteryear had been replaced by a more dangerous breed.
The spectacle of public lynching, the spread of Jim Crow laws, the disenfranchisement of black voters, the curtailment of educational opportunities, the extension of peonage--all were intended to keep the "new Negro" firmly in place.
The time frame for Trouble in Mind through World War I--includes the mass migration of central and southern European peoples to the United States.
To think otherwise, to view black southern life as "simply another version of the classic struggle of all immigrants," he notes, is to ignore "the unique and overwhelming obstacles" created by America'sAbout Leon F.
Litwack. Leon F. Litwack, PhD is the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Trouble in Mind: Black Southerners in the Age of Jim Crow, Been in the Storm So Long: The Aftermath of Slavery, and North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States,.
Black American Feminisms Web site, where one will find an extensive bibliography of Black American Feminist writings from across the disciplines, dating back to the early nineteenth century when African American women like Maria Stewart, Anna Julia Cooper and Sojourner Truth challenged the conventions and mores of their era to speak publicly against slavery and in support of Black womenÕs rights.
slavery Essay Examples. The conclusion of the Civil War in favor of the north was supposed to mean an end to slavery and equal rights for the former slaves. Although laws and amendments were passed to uphold this assumption, the United States Government fell short.
A Review of Leon F. Litwack’s Book North of Slavery ( words, 2. These events of generations ago, when the nation stood on the cusp of a new century, shape much of ''Trouble in Mind,'' Leon F. Litwack's portrayal of the American . I began researching Northern slavery about the year during the course of general Civil War research, and I noticed there was a dearth of information about it online.
There was a dearth of it in print, too. I remembered reading Leon Litwack's excellent book "North of Slavery" in college. APA Citation. Litwack, Leon F. () North of slaverythe Negro in the free States, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, MLA Citation. These citations may not conform precisely to your selected citation style.
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